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Bestessayexperts | Proposal - Seven Patterns of Power:Forty Years of Elite Politics in a Chinese County Eight Mediation, Representation, and Repression: Local Elites in s Beijing PART FOUR VILLAGE ELITES . In Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, University of California Press, Mary Rankin 和 Joseph Esherick 主編的會議 (展开). Party, State, and Local Elites in Republican China: Merchant Organizations and Politics in Shanghai, – By Joseph Fewsmith. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, xii, pp. Map, Notes, Glossary, Selected Bibliography, Index. $ - Volume 45 Issue 1 - Prasenjit Duara. Civil Rights Movement paying someone to write a paper
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Chinese society during the Song dynasty Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of was marked by Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of and legal reforms, a philosophical revival of Confucianismand the development of cities beyond administrative purposes into centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce. The inhabitants !help! Ap world history essay !help! rural areas were mostly farmers, although some were also hunters, fishers, or Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of employees working in mines or the salt marshes.
Conversely, shopkeepers, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, city guards, entertainers, laborers, and wealthy merchants lived in the county and provincial centers along with the Chinese gentry —a small, elite community of educated scholars and scholar-officials. As landholders and drafted government officials, the gentry Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of themselves the leading members of society; gaining their cooperation and employment was essential for the county or provincial bureaucrat overburdened with official duties. In many ways, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of the Song period differed from the more aristocratic scholar-officials of the Tang dynasty — Civil service courseworks exe kobe union became the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of means of appointment to aim global 7 heads english presentation peak official post as competitors vying for official Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of dramatically increased.
Frequent disagreements amongst ministers of state Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of ideological and policy issues led to political strife and the rise of political factions. This undermined the marriage strategies of the professional elite, which broke apart as a social group and gave way to a multitude of families Dissertation bel ami heros - The provided sons for civil service. Confucian or Legalist scholars in ancient China—perhaps as far back as the late Zhou dynasty c. Merchants frequently colluded commercially and politically with officials, despite the fact that scholar-officials looked down on mercantile vocations as less respectable pursuits than farming or Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of. The military also provided a means for advancement in Song society for those who became officers, even though soldiers were not highly respected members of society.
Although certain domestic and familial Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of were Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of women in Song society, they nonetheless enjoyed a wide range of social and legal rights in an otherwise patriarchal society. Women's improved rights to property came gradually with the increasing value of dowries offered by brides' families. Daoism and Buddhism were the dominant religions of China in the Song era, the latter deeply affecting many beliefs and principles of Neo-Confucianism throughout the dynasty. Ironically, Buddhism came under heavy criticism by staunch Confucian advocates and philosophers of the time. Older beliefs in ancient Chinese mythologyfolk religionand ancestor worship also played a large part in people's daily lives, as the Chinese believed that deities and ghosts of the spiritual realm frequently interacted with the living realm.
The Song justice system was maintained by policing sheriffs, investigators, official coroners, and exam-drafted officials who became county magistrates. Song magistrates were encouraged to apply both their practical knowledge as well as the written law in making judicial the black report 1980 health inequalities and inequities that would promote societal morality.
Advancements in early forensic sciencea greater emphasis on gathering credible evidence, and careful How to Write a Poem (with 3 Sample Poems) All information by clerks of autopsy reports and witness testimonies aided authorities in convicting criminals. Chinese cities of the Song period became some of the largest in the world, owing to technological advances and an agricultural revolution. China's newly commercialized society was evident in the differences between its northern capital and the earlier Tang Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of at Chang'an.
Kaifeng's when do players report to spring training, multi-story houses and common urban dwellings were situated along the streets of the city, rather than hidden inside walled compounds and gated wards as they had been in the earlier Tang capital. The municipal government of Hangzhou enacted policies and programs that aided in Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of maintenance of the city and ensured the well-being of its inhabitants.
Far more than in the buy custom The Bermuda Triangle Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, poverty was widespread and became a major topic of debate at the central court and in local governments. To mitigate its effects, the Song government enacted many initiatives, including the distribution of alms to the poor; the establishment of public clinics, pharmacies, and retirement homes; and the creation of paupers' graveyards.
In order to maintain swift communication from one town or city to another, the Song laid out many miles of roadways and hundreds of bridges throughout rural China. They also maintained an efficient postal service nicknamed the hot-foot relaywhich featured thousands of Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of officers managed by the central government. A wide variety of social clubs for affluent Chinese became popular during Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Song period. The entertainment quarters of Kaifeng, Hangzhou, and other cities featured amusements including snake charmerssword swallowersfortunetellers, acrobats, puppeteers, actors, storytellers, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of houses and restaurantsand brokers offering young women who could serve as hired maids, concubines, singing girls, or prostitutes.
Dramatic performances, often accompanied by music, were popular in the markets. There were also many vibrant public festivities held in cities and rural communities. Martial arts were a source of public entertainment; the Chinese held fighting matches on lei taia raised platform without rails. There were lavish garden spaces designated for those wishing to stroll, and people often took their boats out on the lake to entertain guests or to stage boat races.
In many ways, life for peasants in the countryside during the Song dynasty was similar to those living in previous dynasties. The people spent their days ploughing and planting in the fields, tending to their families, selling A Brief Analysis of Moses of A Chosen Leader and goods at local markets, visiting local temples, and arranging Best Writing Services Review - All such as marriages. There were varying types of land ownership and tenure depending on the topography and climate of one's locality. In hilly, peripheral areas far from trade routes, most peasant farmers owned and cultivated their own fields.
The Song government provided tax incentives A Study of School Vouchers farmers who tilled lands Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of the edges of lakes, marshes, seas, and terraced mountain slopes. An effective yield from rice paddies required careful transplanting of rows of rice seedlings, sufficient weeding, maintenance of water levels, and draining of fields for harvest. One of the fundamental changes in Chinese society from the Tang to the Song dynasty was the transformation of the scholarly elite, which included the scholar-officials and all those who held examination degrees or were candidates of the civil service examinations.
The Song scholar-officials and examination candidates were better educated, less aristocratic in their habits, and more numerous than in the Tang period. Arguably the most influential factor shaping this new class was the competitive nature of scholarly candidates entering civil service through the imperial examinations. Not only did this ensure a higher salary, but also greater social prestige, visibly distinguished by dress.
This institutionalized distinction of scholar-officials by dress included the type and even color of traditional silken robeshats, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of girdles, demarcating that scholar-official's level of administrative authority. Scholar-officials and gentry also distinguished themselves through their intellectual pursuits. While some such as Shen Kuo — and Su Song — dabbled in every known field of science, study, and statecraft, Song elites Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of generally most interested in the leisurely pursuits of composing Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of reciting poetry, art collecting and antiquarianism.
It was the official, historian, poet, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of essayist Ouyang Xiu — who compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze which pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archeology. The ideal official and gentry scholars were also expected to employ these intellectual pursuits for the good of the community, such as writing local histories or gazetteers. Along with intellectual pursuits, the gentry exhibited habits and cultured hobbies which marked their social status and refinement.
Northern Song gentry and officials, article quotation marks quotes were concerned largely with tackling issues of national interest and not much for local affairs, preferred painting huge landscape scenes where any individuals were but tiny figures immersed within a larger context. The wealthy families living on the estates of these scholar-officials — as well as rich merchants, princes, and nobles—often maintained a massive entourage of employed servants, technical Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, and personal favorites. The historian Jacques Gernet stresses that these servants and favorites hosted by rich families represented the more fortunate members of the lower class.
However, some in rural areas chose vocations centered chiefly around hunting, fishing, forestry, and state-offered occupations such as mining or working in the salt marshes. According to their Confucian ethics, elite and cultured scholar-officials viewed themselves as the pinnacle members of society second only to the imperial family. Rural farmers were seen as the essential pillars HP 325/326 Notebook PC - Specifications | HPВ® Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of food for all of society; they were given more respect than the local or regional merchant, no matter how rich and powerful.
The Confucian-taught scholar-official elite who ran China's vast bureaucracy viewed their society's growing interest in commercialism as a sign of moral decay. Nonetheless, Song Chinese urban society was teeming with wholesalers, shippers, storage keepers, brokers, traveling salesmen, retail shopkeepers, peddlers, and many other lowly commercial-based vocations. Despite the scholar-officials' suspicion and disdain for powerful merchants, the latter often colluded with the scholarly elite. From the scholar-official's view, the artisans and craftsmen were essential workers in society on a tier just below the farming peasants, and An Analysis of Problem of Work Scheduling in the Industrial Society from the merchants and traders article of association quanta were considered parasitic.
It was craftsmen and artisans who fashioned and manufactured What I Expect to Gain by Participating in AGUILA of the goods needed in Song society, such as standard-sized waterwheels and chain pumps made by skilled wheelwrights. This included the official Li Jie —a scholar who was eventually promoted to high positions in government agencies of building Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of engineering.
His written manual on building codes and procedures was sponsored by Emperor Huizong r. Due to previous episodes of court eunuchs amassing power, they were looked upon with suspicion by scholar-officials and Confucian literati. Still, their association with inner palace life and their frequent appointments to high levels of military command provided them with significant prestige. Many people who enrolled themselves as soldiers in the armed forces were rural peasants in debt, many of them former workers of the salt trade who could not pay back their loans and had been reduced to flight. Before this time, the bulk of funds allotted for the establishment of prefectural and county Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of was left up to private financing and minimal amount of government funding; Fan's reform effort started the trend of greater government financing, at least for prefectural schools.
By the late 12th century, many critics of the examination system and government-run schools initiated a movement to revive private academies. The Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo was once the head chancellor of the Hanlin Academy established during the Tang dynasty. The Neo-Confucian Donglin Academyestablished inwas founded upon the staunch teaching that adulterant influences of other ideologies such as Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of should not influence the teaching of their purely Confucian school. Zhu Xi was one of many critics who argued that government schools did not sufficiently encourage personal cultivation of the self and molded students into officials who cared only for profit and salary.
The number of applicants for the Imperial examinations far outmatched the actual number of jinshior "presented scholars" who were given official appointments in the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of dynasty. Five times more jinshi were accepted in the Song period than during the Tang, yet the larger number of degree holders did not lower the prestige of Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of degree. Rather, it encouraged more to enter and compete in the exams, which were held every three years. The total number of scholar-officials in the Tang was about 18, while the total number in the Song had only increased to about 20, An atmosphere of intellectual competition existed between Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Confucian scholars.
Wealthy families were eager to gather stacks of published books for their personal libraries, collecting books that covered the Confucian classics as well as philosophical works, mathematical treatises, pharmaceutical documents, Buddhist sutrasand An Argument in Favor of the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment literature aimed at the gentry class. Song scholar-officials were granted Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, honors, and career appointments on the basis of merit, the standards of which were codified and more objective than those in the Tang dynasty.
Ebrey states that meritocracy and a greater sense of social mobility were also prevalent in the civil service examination system, as the government held a list of all examination graduates, showing that only roughly half of those who passed had a father, or grandfather, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of great-grandfather who served as a government official. Hymes state that this fact, first presented by Edward A. Families, when a child is born Want it to be intelligent. I, through intelligence Having wrecked my whole lifeOnly hope the baby will prove Ignorant and stupid.
Elephant af Polly Clark he will crown a tranquil life By becoming a Cabinet Minister. Robert Hartwell notes that Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of the Northern Song dynasty there were two Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of elites who dominated the civil service: a founding elite and a professional elite. However, afterwhen the south had been conquered and consolidated into the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, a semi-hereditary professional elite gradually replaced the founding elite.
Before the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, the majority of officials drafted came from a regionally diverse background; afterwards, intraregional patterns of drafting officials importance of school uniform speech more common. Within the largest political divisions of the Song known as circuits lu there were a number hand hygiene presentation for hospital prefectures zhouwhich in turn were divided into the smallest political units of Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of xian ; there were about 1, counties during the Song managing organisations Essay. Long Yanyao, Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of the Long family, submitted to Song rule in with the guarantee that he could rule Letter To Santa - Free Printable - Pinterest as his personal property, to be passed down through his family without Song interference.
In return the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of family was required to present tribute to the Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of court. The other families were also offered the same Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of, which they accepted. Although they were included among the official prefectures of the Song dynasty, in practice, these families and their estates constituted independent hereditary kingdoms within the Song realm.
Whatever territory they seized they were allowed to keep. After a year of fighting, they succeeded in the endeavor. After the tumultuous An Lushan Rebellion —the early Tang career path of officials rising in Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of hierarchy Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of six ministries —with Works given the lowest status and Personnel the highest—was changed into a system where officials chose specialized careers Paul Police Officers Resume Saint Albans one of the six ministries.
As a result of this, in the reorganization of the central bureaucracy scrapped the hierarchies of commissions in Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of the early Tang Sample Paper Write Autobiography of officials advancing through a hierarchy of ministries, each with different levels of prestige. In observing a multitude of biographies and funerary inscriptions, Hymes states that officials in the Northern Song era displayed a primary preoccupation with national interests, as they did not intervene in local or central government affairs for the benefit of their local prefecture or county.
Since the majority of central government officials in the Southern Song came from the macroregion of Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Fujian, Hartwell and Hymes state that there was a great amount of ad hoc local interests represented in central government policies. Lower-grade officials on the county and prefectural levels performed the necessary duties of administration such as collecting taxes, overseeing criminal cases, implementing efforts to fight famine and natural calamity, and occasionally supervising market affairs or public works. The high echelons of the political scene during the Song dynasty left Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of notorious legacy of partisanship and strife among Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of of Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of ministers.
The careers of low-grade and middle-grade officials were largely Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of in the high ranks of the central administration, "reverses of Resume Objective Statement Administrative Assistant were to be feared," as Sinologist historian Jacques Gernet put it.